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County History and Civil War: Sir Philip Mainwaring, William Dugdale, and the Attempt to Publish a History of Cheshire in the 1650s
Author: Fiona Pogson
Volume: 163 (2014-0) Pages: 1-18,

In 1659 Sir Philip Mainwaring, great-uncle to Thomas Mainwaring of Baddiley and Peover, proposed that the eminent antiquarian William Dugdale write a county history of Cheshire along the lines of his successful publication on Warwickshire.  This article explores the ways in which this proposal reflected the interests and concerns of Mainwaring, his relatives and wider circle during the troubled 1640s and 1650s.  Those who regarded themselves as the rightful governors of the county has been profoundly disturbed by a series of challenges to their status and authority during the civil war and its aftermath.  The projected county history, intended to be richly illustrated with engravings of coats of arms and funeral monuments, would have emphasised the elite families'  claim to be  the county's legitimate governors.


Dreams of Helicopter Travel in the 1950s and Liverpool's Undeveloped Plans for a City Centre Heliport
Author: Martin Dodge and Richard Brook
Volume: 163 (2014-0) Pages: 111-125,
The paper considers schemes for city centre heliports in the 1950s and early 1960s, an aspect of unbuilt transport infrastructure that was widely envisaged would radically improve urban mobility and intercity travel.  The exploitation of the air space immediately above the city provided the potential to solve the congestion on the streets below.  The helicopter was a thrillingly modern technology in this period, with its ability to hover and land vertically right in the heart of cities.  The paper uses original case studies relating to heliport planning in London and Liverpool drawing on unpublished primary archival materials.
Research in Progress: Protest and the State: Understanding the Home Office Disturbances Papers
Author: Robert Poole
Volume: 163 (2014-0) Pages: 133-138,

Research in Progress: The Commissioners' Churches on a Lancashire Religious Frontier - Vital Bastions of a Nineteenth-Century Anglican 'Counter Reformation'?
Author: William Walker
Volume: 163 (2014-0) Pages: 127-132,

Settlement, Disease, Poverty and Conflict: The Irish in Birkenhead, 1841-51
Author: Mike Handley
Volume: 163 (2014-0) Pages: 73-91,
The abstract examines the impact of inward Irish migration upon the small newly developing township of Birkenhead during the 1840s.  It uses poor law records, census enumerators' books, published Parliamentary Papers, Liverpool and Chester newspapers and the minutes of the Birkenhead Commissioners and the Parish Vestry to assess the short-term effects of the Irish immigration by focussing on settlement, disease, poverty and conflict.  It analyses the available statistics to measure the concentration of Irish-born in different parts of the township, their vulnerability to disease and their possible contribution to the rising poor rate costs.  This evidence is used to question the contemporary anti-Irish prejudice which the immigrants encountered.  The article asks whether their social and economic conditions persuaded the Irish to engage in political conflict or if they were more likely to be motivated by religious motives.
The Bloody Code in Cheshire: The Chester Court of Great Sessions 1805-30
Author: John Walliss
Volume: 163 (2014-0) Pages: 55-71,
The Bloody Code of the eighteenth and early nineteenth century has generated a great deal of interest from historians of crime for a number of decades.  The aim of this article is to explore the operation of the Bloody Code in Cheshire between 1805 and 1830, the last quarter of a century of the Chester Court of Great Sessions.  The article argues that, belying an image of the criminal justice system dripping in the blood of the condemned, the majority of those found guilty at the Chester Court of Great Sessions were sentenced to periods of imprisonment.  Those who subsequently expiated for their crimes on the gallows had typically been convicted of either a serious crime against the person or burglary.  Males were also more likely to  receive harsher sentences, and be executed for a broader range of crimes, than females, even when convicted of the same offences.
The Duke of Monmouth's 1682 Progress and Political Division in the North West
Author: Geoff Baker
Volume: 163 (2014-0) Pages: 19-36,
In 1682 the Duke of Monmouth, Charles II's senior illegitimate son, embarked on a progress through Warwickshire, Staffordshire, Cheshire and Lancashire.  Occurring in the wake of the 'Exclusion Crisis' of 1679 to 1681, its precise purpose has been the subject of debate amongst contemporaries and historians. This paper provides a comprehensive narrative of the progress and considers the extend to which it was intended to lay the ground for a future insurrection.  The nature of the support that Monmouth received is also evaluated.  Not only did individuals from all aspects of society, including gentry and peers, turn out to greet Monmouth, but it is also argued that they were under no illusions as to how this support would be interpreted at the time.  Analysis of the progress provides a useful perspective on local political divisions, the position of the Whigs, Monmouth's chief supporters, and the position of the Duke of Monmouth himself, at a time of considerable flux.  Despite the fact the the Progress ended with Monmouth's arrest, the apparent support he received also gives some insight nto why he felt so sure of success for his ultimately disastrous rebellion of 1685.
The Lancashire Boggart Plays: A Lost Local Theatre Tradition?
Author: Simon Young
Volume: 163 (2014-0) Pages: 93-110,
In the second half of the nineteenth century a series of Lancashire communities put on boggart plays, comic productions that were often entirely or partially in dialect.  These plays are for the most part lost: only one nineteenth-century boggart play survives.  But contemporary notices give us a unique insight into the theatre, dialect and treatment of the supernatural in Lancashire in the mid-late Victorian period.  The earliest of these boggart plays was written by one Edward Slater, a talented Burnley composer and author who partnered with the Burnley Part Song Union.  The concentration of several of the boggart plays around Burnley (Bacup, Sabden and Todmorden) and a later and apparently derivative Edwardian boggart play from the West Riding (Baildon, fifteen miles from Burnley) suggest that Slater may have given the initial impulse to this particularly Lancashire form of theatre.
The North West and the 1798 Rebellion
Author: Máirtín Ó Catháin
Volume: 163 (2014-0) Pages: 37-54,
This article takes as its focus the deployment of soldiers from the North West of England in Ireland during the 1798 rebellion.  It explores the various units of both fencibles and militia who were sent there, the controversies surrounding their actions in Ireland and considers the impact of their return on the North West.  In particular the article examines the argument that the roots of the loyalist Orange Order in England emerged from the veterans of the government's anti-insurgency campaign in Ireland.  It finds that many of those English pioneers of Orangeism who later were prominent in the suppresion of popular movements for change in the north of England, rarely, if ever, served during the rebellion itself.  Moreover, the loyalist trope of Orangeism's English founders having 'blooded' themselves in the fight against radicalism in Ireland, clashes with the reality that they imbibed their reactionary politics at lunches, balls and dinners rather than in the heat of battle.