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‘A Plethora of First Class Political Oratory’:The Home Rule By-Election in Rossendale, 1892
Author: Dunleavy, John
Volume: 158 (2009-0) Pages: 135-158,
Focusing on the parliamentary by-election held in the Rossendale constituency in January 1892 in which a Gladstonian home rule Liberal was opposed by a candidate who represented the Conservatives and the anti-home rule Liberal Unionists, this article places the campaign and its outcome in the wider context of the long struggle within as well as between political parties over the question of Irish home rule. Drawing upon a range of sources, especially contemporary reports in the local, regional and national press, the article shows how the hard-fought Rossendale contest ended in a victory for the pro-home rule candidate, assesses the support which that candidate probably received within the constituency, including support from the area’s Irish community and voters, and explores how that result continued a run of by-election victories seemingly pointing to renewed electoral support for home rule, while also concluding that in reality the Rossendale result proved to be a Pyrrhic victory for the Gladstonian Liberals and the cause of home rule in general.
Negotiating Work:Absenteeism at Quarry Bank Mill, Cheshire in 1790
Author: Peers, Sarah
Volume: 158 (2009-0) Pages: 29-58,
This article contributes to the historical debate over whether and to what extent the advent of organized industrialization and the factory system during the later eighteenth century produced a time-orientated workforce tied to long and regular working hours. Drawing heavily upon the surviving wage book for Quarry Bank Mill, the article undertakes meticulous examination of attendance levels and hours worked at the mill during the calendar year 1790, concluding that there was a significant level of voluntary or non-enforced absenteeism during the year which suggests that many workers chose to absent themselves from work. It is shown that this voluntary absenteeism followed certain patterns, which in turn indicate that many workers were absenting themselves on Mondays, during periods of the year when alternative employment was readily available in agriculture and on certain occasions to facilitate the celebration of and recovery from feast days, holy days and other events, especially the local wakes week.
The Great Boughton Poor Law Union, 1837-71
Author: Handley, Mike
Volume: 158 (2009-0) Pages: 85-110,
This article assesses the sometimes troubled history of the Great Boughton Poor Law Union from its establishment in 1837 under the new poor law through to its break-up 34 years later. It is suggested that the union was always something of a compromise, a large and oddly-shaped territory running across west Cheshire and Flintshire, created because of the refusal of Chester to participate in the new system and in part to pressurize that city into joining. Drawing heavily upon the union’s official records, the article charts the internal divisions and pressures within the union, which in time caused industrial Hawarden to break away, its uneasy relationship with Chester, its resistance to governmental control in general and to constructing a new workhouse in particular and its gradual adoption of the principles and practices of the new poor law, including provision of a workhouse and of educational, medical and welfare facilities. In conclusion, it is argued that by the time Chester’s belated entry into the new system caused the final break-up of the Great Boughton Union in 1871, it was operating efficiently and in full compliance with the new poor law.
The Origins of the St HelensImprovement Commission of 1845
Author: Hawes, Richard
Volume: 158 (2009-0) Pages: 111-134,
This article re-examines the origins of the improved and expanded local administration of the growing industrial town of St Helens effected through an improvement bill approved by parliament in 1845. Having charted the growth of St Helens and its rather patchy and antiquated local administration during the opening decades of the nineteenth century, the article suggests that general concerns about the inadequacies of existing administrative structures and the manner in which they were impeding improvements to the town and townscape rather than a specific epidemic or medical crisis prompted the approach to parliament for an improvement act. Drawing upon local sources and the official parliamentary records, the article also re-examines the nature and causes of resistance to the initiative, expressed both locally and in the parliamentary committee considering the bill, much of it springing from a particular area of St Helens dominated by a major glassworks.
The Rood Screen of St Helen’s Church, Sefton:Its Restoration by William Caröe anda Clarification of its Original Date
Author: Stammers, Mike
Volume: 158 (2009-0) Pages: 159-166,
This shorter research paper reconstructs and recounts the later history of the oak rood screen in St Helen’s church, especially its extensive but sympathetic restoration by William Caröe in the early twentieth century. The paper also argues that on both stylistic grounds and the meaning of the carved initials and motifs found on the old woodwork, the screen was probably constructed and installed in the church in the early 1540s.
Welsh Migrants and Performance inEarly Nineteenth-Century Liverpool
Author: Benbough-Jackson, Mike
Volume: 158 (2009-0) Pages: 59-84,
Grounded in existing work on nationality and national identity, migrants and migration, performance and diaspora space, this article explores the position and actions of the large Welsh community in early nineteenth-century Liverpool. Drawing upon a range of sources, including committee minutes and reports published in contemporary newspapers, the article focuses on two aspects of Liverpool Welsh activity or performance: the establishment, opening and early history of a new episcopal church in the city serving a Welsh and Welsh-speaking congregation and the organization and running of Welsh processions through Liverpool to mark St David’s day. In both activities, it is shown that Welsh migrants were able to proclaim their national character, respectability and religiosity, but that in both cases divisions within the Liverpool Welsh community, together with other local or national conditions and circumstances, served to undermine or curtail these ventures.
Whigs, Dissenters and Hanoverian Loyalism in Preston during the Jacobite Rebellions of 1715 and 1745
Author: Parry, Mark
Volume: 158 (2009-0) Pages: 1-28,
Building upon published work on national and regional responses to the Jacobite Rebellions of 1715 and 1745, this article examines the response of Preston and its inhabitants to both rebellions. Based upon the rather thin surviving documentation for the town’s stance in 1715 and the far richer records for Preston’s response to the 1745 rebellion, especially correspondence of and between the earl of Derby and Sir Henry Hoghton, the article suggests that on both occasions many local Catholics supported the rebellion and many Anglican gentry were ambivalent and inactive, but that the local Whig elite took a prominent stand to defend the Hanoverian regime and that they won active support amongst dissenters and the lower orders. Accordingly, it is argued that both rebellions revealed marked divisions within local society in and around the town, many of them springing from religious views and convictions, and that in both 1715 and 1745 support for the Hanoverian regime in Preston was patchy and limited.